Sickle Cell Disease (Sickle cell anemia)

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Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD is a serious disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. 'Sickle-shaped' means that the red blood cells are shaped like a crescent. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped and look like doughnuts without holes in the center. They move easily through your blood vessels. Red blood cells contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin. This protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin called sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin causes the cells to develop a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky. They tend to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. Blocked blood flow can cause pain and organ damage. It can also raise the risk for infection. The characteristic crescent-shaped or sickle cell hemoglobin can disrupt blood flow and break, and is associated with varying degrees of anemia. There is a predisposition for obstruction of small blood capillaries causing painful crises, damage to major organs, and increased vulnerability to severe infections. Associated with lifelong morbidity and reduced life expectancy. All infants are screened, with findings confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis, a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear. Treatment goals include fluid replacement therapy, pain management, and symptom control.

Symptoms:

Laboratory Test Procedures:

anemia
stunted growth
pain
chest pain
abdominal pain
joint aches
pain in the lower back
bone pain
hands swelling
feet swelling
abdomen swelling
abdominal tenderness
fever
increased number and severity of infections
pale skin
lips or fingernails turn blue or gray
jaundice
fatigue
shortness of breath
fast heartbeat
painful and prolonged erection
blindness
blurred vision
confusion
sores

Hemoglobin
Hematocrit
WBC
Neutrophil %
Neutrophil Absolute
Platelet Count
ESR - Sed Rate
Reticulocyte Count
Sickle
RBC Morphology
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