Carcinoma, Thyroid cancer

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If thyroid cancer spreads (metastasizes) outside the thyroid, cancer cells are often found in nearby lymph nodes, nerves, or blood vessels. If the cancer has reached these lymph nodes, cancer cells may have also spread to other lymph nodes or to other organs, such as the lungs or bones. There are the major types of thyroid cancer: Papillary and follicular thyroid cancers account for 80 to 90 percent of all thyroid cancers. Both types begin in the follicular cells of the thyroid. Most papillary and follicular thyroid cancers tend to grow slowly. If they are detected early, most can be treated successfully; Medullary thyroid cancer accounts for 5 to 10 percent of thyroid cancer cases. It arises in C cells, not follicular cells. Medullary thyroid cancer is easier to control if it is found and treated before it spreads to other parts of the body; Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the least common type of thyroid cancer (only 1 to 2 percent of cases). It arises in the follicular cells. The cancer cells are highly abnormal and difficult to recognize. This type of cancer is usually very hard to control because the cancer cells tend to grow and spread very quickly; Most commonly presents as an asymptomatic thyroid nodule detected by palpation or ultrasound in a woman in her 30s or 40s. The most important diagnostic test is fine-needle aspiration. Treatment is usually total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation and TSH suppression (papillary or follicular). Treatment differs and must be tailored for uncommon types of thyroid cancer such as medullary, lymphoma, or anaplastic.


Laboratory Test Procedures:

lump in neck
hoarse voice
difficulty speaking
pain in throat
pain in neck
difficulty swallowing
painful swallowing
difficulty breathing
shortness of breath
swollen lymph nodes

T3 Free
T4 Free
T4 Total
LDH Lactate dehydrogenase
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